Creation Functions

Array API specification for creating arrays.

A conforming implementation of the array API standard must provide and support the following functions adhering to the following conventions.

  • Positional parameters must be positional-only parameters. Positional-only parameters have no externally-usable name. When a function accepting positional-only parameters is called, positional arguments are mapped to these parameters based solely on their order.

  • Optional parameters must be keyword-only arguments.

Objects in API

arange(start, /, stop=None, step=1, *, dtype=None, device=None)

Returns evenly spaced values within the half-open interval [start, stop) as a one-dimensional array.

Parameters

  • start : Union[ int, float ]

    • if stop is specified, the start of interval (inclusive); otherwise, the end of the interval (exclusive). If stop is not specified, the default starting value is 0 .

  • stop : Optional[ Union[ int, float ] ]

    • the end of the interval. Default: None .

Note

This function cannot guarantee that the interval does not include the stop value in those cases where step is not an integer and floating-point rounding errors affect the length of the output array.

  • step : Union[ int, float ]

    • the distance between two adjacent elements ( out[i+1] - out[i] ). Must not be 0 ; may be negative, this results in an empty array if stop >= start . Default: 1 .

  • dtype : Optional[ <dtype> ]

    • output array data type. If dtype is None , the output array data type must be inferred from start , stop and step . If those are all integers, the output array dtype must be the default integer dtype; if one or more have type float , then the output array dtype must be the default floating-point data type. Default: None .

  • device : Optional[ <device> ]

    • device on which to place the created array. Default: None .

Returns

  • out : <array>

    • a one-dimensional array containing evenly spaced values. The length of the output array must be ceil((stop-start)/step) if stop - start and step have the same sign, and length 0 otherwise.

asarray(obj, /, *, dtype=None, device=None, copy=None)

Convert the input to an array.

Parameters

  • obj : Union[ <array>, bool, int, float, NestedSequence[ bool | int | float ], SupportsBufferProtocol ]

    • object to be converted to an array. May be a Python scalar, a (possibly nested) sequence of Python scalars, or an object supporting the Python buffer protocol.

    Tip

    An object supporting the buffer protocol can be turned into a memoryview through memoryview(obj) .

  • dtype : Optional[ <dtype> ]

    • output array data type. If dtype is None , the output array data type must be inferred from the data type(s) in obj . If all input values are Python scalars, then

      • if all values are of type bool , the output data type must be bool .

      • if the values are a mixture of bool s and int , the output data type must be the default integer data type.

      • if one or more values are float s, the output data type must be the default floating-point data type.

      Default: None .

      Note

      If dtype is not None , then array conversions should obey Type Promotion Rules rules. Conversions not specified according to Type Promotion Rules rules may or may not be permitted by a conforming array library.

      To perform an explicit cast, use astype(x, dtype, /, *, copy=True) .

  • device : Optional[ <device> ]

    • device on which to place the created array. If device is None and x is an array, the output array device must be inferred from x . Default: None .

  • copy : Optional[ bool ]

    • boolean indicating whether or not to copy the input. If True , the function must always copy. If False , the function must never copy for input which supports the buffer protocol and must raise a ValueError in case a copy would be necessary. If None , the function must reuse existing memory buffer if possible and copy otherwise. Default: None .

Returns

  • out : <array>

    • an array containing the data from obj .

empty(shape, *, dtype=None, device=None)

Returns an uninitialized array having a specified shape .

Parameters

  • shape : Union[ int, Tuple[ int, … ] ]

    • output array shape.

  • dtype : Optional[ <dtype> ]

    • output array data type. If dtype is None , the output array data type must be the default floating-point data type. Default: None .

  • device : Optional[ <device> ]

    • device on which to place the created array. Default: None .

Returns

  • out : <array>

    • an array containing uninitialized data.

empty_like(x, /, *, dtype=None, device=None)

Returns an uninitialized array with the same shape as an input array x .

Parameters

  • x : <array>

    • input array from which to derive the output array shape.

  • dtype : Optional[ <dtype> ]

    • output array data type. If dtype is None , the output array data type must be inferred from x . Default: None .

  • device : Optional[ <device> ]

    • device on which to place the created array. If device is None , the output array device must be inferred from x . Default: None .

Returns

  • out : <array>

    • an array having the same shape as x and containing uninitialized data.

eye(n_rows, n_cols=None, /, *, k=0, dtype=None, device=None)

Returns a two-dimensional array with ones on the k th diagonal and zeros elsewhere.

Parameters

  • n_rows : int

    • number of rows in the output array.

  • n_cols : Optional[ int ]

    • number of columns in the output array. If None , the default number of columns in the output array is equal to n_rows . Default: None .

  • k : int

    • index of the diagonal. A positive value refers to an upper diagonal, a negative value to a lower diagonal, and 0 to the main diagonal. Default: 0 .

  • dtype : Optional[ <dtype> ]

    • output array data type. If dtype is None , the output array data type must be the default floating-point data type. Default: None .

  • device : Optional[ <device> ]

    • device on which to place the created array. Default: None .

Returns

  • out : <array>

    • an array where all elements are equal to zero, except for the k th diagonal, whose values are equal to one.

from_dlpack(x, /)

Returns a new array containing the data from another (array) object with a __dlpack__ method.

Parameters

  • x : object

    • input (array) object.

Returns

  • out : <array>

full(shape, fill_value, *, dtype=None, device=None)

Returns a new array having a specified shape and filled with fill_value .

Parameters

  • shape : Union[ int, Tuple[ int, … ] ]

    • output array shape.

  • fill_value : Union[ int, float ]

    • fill value.

  • dtype : Optional[ <dtype> ]

    • output array data type. If dtype is None , the output array data type must be inferred from fill_value . If the fill value is an int , the output array data type must be the default integer data type. If the fill value is a float , the output array data type must be the default floating-point data type. If the fill value is a bool , the output array must have boolean data type. Default: None .

      Note

      If dtype is None and the fill_value exceeds the precision of the resolved default output array data type, behavior is left unspecified and, thus, implementation-defined.

  • device : Optional[ <device> ]

    • device on which to place the created array. Default: None .

Returns

  • out : <array>

    • an array where every element is equal to fill_value .

full_like(x, /, fill_value, *, dtype=None, device=None)

Returns a new array filled with fill_value and having the same shape as an input array x .

Parameters

  • x : <array>

    • input array from which to derive the output array shape.

  • fill_value : Union[ int, float ]

    • fill value.

  • dtype : Optional[ <dtype> ]

    • output array data type. If dtype is None , the output array data type must be inferred from x . Default: None .

      Note

      If dtype is None and the fill_value exceeds the precision of the resolved output array data type, behavior is unspecified and, thus, implementation-defined.

      Note

      If dtype is None and the fill_value has a data type ( int or float ) which is not of the same data type kind as the resolved output array data type (see Type Promotion Rules ), behavior is unspecified and, thus, implementation-defined.

  • device : Optional[ <device> ]

    • device on which to place the created array. If device is None , the output array device must be inferred from x . Default: None .

Returns

  • out : <array>

    • an array having the same shape as x and where every element is equal to fill_value .

linspace(start, stop, /, num, *, dtype=None, device=None, endpoint=True)

Returns evenly spaced numbers over a specified interval.

Parameters

  • start : Union[ int, float ]

    • the start of the interval.

  • stop : Union[ int, float ]

    • the end of the interval. If endpoint is False , the function must generate a sequence of num+1 evenly spaced numbers starting with start and ending with stop and exclude the stop from the returned array such that the returned array consists of evenly spaced numbers over the half-open interval [start, stop) . If endpoint is True , the output array must consist of evenly spaced numbers over the closed interval [start, stop] . Default: True .

      Note

      The step size changes when endpoint is False .

  • num : int

    • number of samples. Must be a non-negative integer value; otherwise, the function must raise an exception.

  • dtype : Optional[ <dtype> ]

    • output array data type. If dtype is None , the output array data type must be the default floating-point data type. Default: None .

  • device : Optional[ <device> ]

    • device on which to place the created array. Default: None .

  • endpoint : bool

    • boolean indicating whether to include stop in the interval. Default: True .

Returns

  • out : <array>

    • a one-dimensional array containing evenly spaced values.

meshgrid(*arrays, indexing=’xy’)

Returns coordinate matrices from coordinate vectors.

Parameters

  • arrays : <array>

    • an arbitrary number of one-dimensional arrays representing grid coordinates. Each array should have the same numeric data type.

  • indexing : str

    • Cartesian ‘xy’ or matrix ‘ij’ indexing of output. If provided zero or one one-dimensional vector(s) (i.e., the zero- and one-dimensional cases, respectively), the indexing keyword has no effect and should be ignored. Default: 'xy' .

Returns

  • out : List[ <array>, … ]

    • list of N arrays, where N is the number of provided one-dimensional input arrays. Each returned array must have rank N . For N one-dimensional arrays having lengths Ni = len(xi) ,

      • if matrix indexing ij , then each returned array must have the shape (N1, N2, N3, ..., Nn) .

      • if Cartesian indexing xy , then each returned array must have shape (N2, N1, N3, ..., Nn) .

      Accordingly, for the two-dimensional case with input one-dimensional arrays of length M and N , if matrix indexing ij , then each returned array must have shape (M, N) , and, if Cartesian indexing xy , then each returned array must have shape (N, M) .

      Similarly, for the three-dimensional case with input one-dimensional arrays of length M , N , and P , if matrix indexing ij , then each returned array must have shape (M, N, P) , and, if Cartesian indexing xy , then each returned array must have shape (N, M, P) .

      Each returned array should have the same data type as the input arrays.

ones(shape, *, dtype=None, device=None)

Returns a new array having a specified shape and filled with ones.

Parameters

  • shape : Union[ int, Tuple[ int, … ] ]

    • output array shape.

  • dtype : Optional[ <dtype> ]

    • output array data type. If dtype is None , the output array data type must be the default floating-point data type. Default: None .

  • device : Optional[ <device> ]

    • device on which to place the created array. Default: None .

Returns

  • out : <array>

    • an array containing ones.

ones_like(x, /, *, dtype=None, device=None)

Returns a new array filled with ones and having the same shape as an input array x .

Parameters

  • x : <array>

    • input array from which to derive the output array shape.

  • dtype : Optional[ <dtype> ]

    • output array data type. If dtype is None , the output array data type must be inferred from x . Default: None .

  • device : Optional[ <device> ]

    • device on which to place the created array. If device is None , the output array device must be inferred from x . Default: None .

Returns

  • out : <array>

    • an array having the same shape as x and filled with ones.

tril(x, /, *, k=0)

Returns the lower triangular part of a matrix (or a stack of matrices) x .

Note

The lower triangular part of the matrix is defined as the elements on and below the specified diagonal k .

Parameters

  • x : <array>

    • input array having shape (..., M, N) and whose innermost two dimensions form MxN matrices.

  • k : int

    • diagonal above which to zero elements. If k = 0 , the diagonal is the main diagonal. If k < 0 , the diagonal is below the main diagonal. If k > 0 , the diagonal is above the main diagonal. Default: 0 .

      Note

      The main diagonal is defined as the set of indices {(i, i)} for i on the interval [0, min(M, N) - 1] .

Returns

  • out : <array>

    • an array containing the lower triangular part(s). The returned array must have the same shape and data type as x . All elements above the specified diagonal k must be zeroed. The returned array should be allocated on the same device as x .

triu(x, /, *, k=0)

Returns the upper triangular part of a matrix (or a stack of matrices) x .

Note

The upper triangular part of the matrix is defined as the elements on and above the specified diagonal k .

Parameters

  • x : <array>

    • input array having shape (..., M, N) and whose innermost two dimensions form MxN matrices.

  • k : int

    • diagonal below which to zero elements. If k = 0 , the diagonal is the main diagonal. If k < 0 , the diagonal is below the main diagonal. If k > 0 , the diagonal is above the main diagonal. Default: 0 .

      Note

      The main diagonal is defined as the set of indices {(i, i)} for i on the interval [0, min(M, N) - 1] .

Returns

  • out : <array>

    • an array containing the upper triangular part(s). The returned array must have the same shape and data type as x . All elements below the specified diagonal k must be zeroed. The returned array should be allocated on the same device as x .

zeros(shape, *, dtype=None, device=None)

Returns a new array having a specified shape and filled with zeros.

Parameters

  • shape : Union[ int, Tuple[ int, … ] ]

    • output array shape.

  • dtype : Optional[ <dtype> ]

    • output array data type. If dtype is None , the output array data type must be the default floating-point data type. Default: None .

  • device : Optional[ <device> ]

    • device on which to place the created array. Default: None .

Returns

  • out : <array>

    • an array containing zeros.

zeros_like(x, /, *, dtype=None, device=None)

Returns a new array filled with zeros and having the same shape as an input array x .

Parameters

  • x : <array>

    • input array from which to derive the output array shape.

  • dtype : Optional[ <dtype> ]

    • output array data type. If dtype is None , the output array data type must be inferred from x . Default: None .

  • device : Optional[ <device> ]

    • device on which to place the created array. If device is None , the output array device must be inferred from x . Default: None .

Returns

  • out : <array>

    • an array having the same shape as x and filled with zeros.